Crop guides: Grapevine

Crop Specificity: Grapevine

Grapevine is one of the most commonly grown fruit crop in the World. Most varieties of grapes come from species of  Vitis vinifera (Common grape). Grape crops are cultivated in warm regions with hot, dry summers and mild winters which protects plants against frost injures. 

 

Grapevine plants can grow in different soil conditions. However, the most suitable soils for grape are neutral or slightly alkaline sandy loams with low level of ground water.

 

Rapid and strong growth of shoots, high vegetative plant part production, long vegetation period and high yield require not only appropriate plant management (cutting) but also proper plant nutrition and stimulation.

 

Grapevine plants have high requirements for nitrogen (N) which effects plant growth and yield quantity and quality. Soil applied nitrogen should be supported by foliar application of nitrogen (N), especially at critical growth stages such as intensive shoot and leaf growth, inflorescence development and beginning of fruit development. For all those stages PLONVIT NITROMAG and/or PLONVIT OPTY  could support plants with proper dose of nitrogen and other macro- and microelements as well. 

 

High yield of grapes and high quality of berries and wine are influenced by other macronutrients, especially potassium (K), for which the vine plants have the highest demand among all macroelements. Potassium response mostly for fruit size, taste and colour which is important for both type of grapes: table and wine grapes. Foliar applied PLONVIT KAPLPRIM could significantly improve supplying plants with potassium (K), especially during inflorescence development and fruit development. 

 

Berry quality and tolerance to some fungal diseases results from calcium (Ca) availability to plants. Application of calcium activator OPTYCAL and fertilizer PLONVIT CALCIUM TURBO increases fruit firmness and resistance of fruit skin to cracking and creases.

 

Since vine grape plants are usually grown on neutral and slightly alkaline calcareous soils, they require effective supplying with microelements, especially boron (B), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu). Those nutrients have direct effect on a number of natural plant processes such as photosynthesis, pollination, fruit set and fruit development, sugar and acid metabolism etc. Their effectivness could be supported by foliar application of: AMINOCHELAT Fe-20 or MIKROCHELAT Fe-13, AMINOCHELAT Mn-22 or MIKROCHELAT Mn-13, AMINOCHELAT Zn-24 or MIKROCHELAT Zn-15, and AMINOCHELAT Cu-24  or MIKROCHELAT Cu-15. Also, since boron  is hardly available to plants from calcareous soils, foliar application of MIKROVIT BORON TURBO could supply vine plants with boron to improve pollination, fruit set processes and increase fruit quality.

 

High yield of grapevine plants as well as long vegetation period require supporting of plant growth and tolerance to stresses which could ensure yield quantity and good quality.

Therefore, foliar applications of TYTANIT and OPTYSIL may stimulate plants for better growth and yield and for improvement of tolerance to abiotic (weather conditions) and biotic (disease and pest appearance) stresses. 

Nutrition Program - diagram: Grapevine

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Nutrition Program - description: Grapevine

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Nutrient Deficiencies: Grapevine

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Stress Control System: Grapevine

Strategy for Supporting Natural Plant Resistance STRESS CONTROL SYSTEM (SCS) is a set of recommendations for the use of stimulators, activators, shielding products and bio-products of INTERMAG, the aim of which is to increase the natural resistance of plants to stress, to support health of plants, and to accelerate recovery after the stress factors disappear.

 

Strategy STRESS CONTROL SYSTEM (SCS) - GRAPEVINE can be implemented in two ways:

 

  1. Preventive actions – systematic bio-stimulating treatments, recommended in plant nutrition and bio-stimulation programs – improve condition of plants and increase their natural resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses.
     

  2. Intervention actions – individual selection of preparations and dates of their application, aimed at significant reduction of harmfulness of stresses and limitation of their negative effects that may occur in case of atypical or unfavourable growing condition appearance. These actions also accelerate the regeneration of plants after the stress factors disappear.

 

Elements of the strategy STRESS CONTROL SYSTEM (SCS) for  GRAPEVINE crops are:

 

Selection of products to increase the natural resistance of plants to stress, to support health of plants and to accelerate their recovery after the stress factors disappear are shown in the table.

The effectiveness of the treatments with different products depends on the date of their application. In the table they are marked with symbols:

    before expected occurrence of stress factors

    during the stress

    after disappearance of stress factors.

 

Detailed information on each product applications can be found in their descriptions.

 

Factors causing plant stress - GRAPEVINE

Yield

stimulant

TYTANIT

Immunity stimulants

OPTYSIL

Recovery

stimulant

AMINOPRIM

Activator of energy

GROWON

Calcium

activator

OPTYCAL

Frost resistance activator

FROSTEX

Protective products

ALKALIN

Shielding

product

CUPRAN
high soil salinity  

           
low temperature of soil and /or air          
ground/spring frost        
high temperature of air and /or soil            

excessive soil moisture, periodic flooding

       
shortage of water in the soil            
limited availability of nutrients          
adverse weather conditions during flowering              
mechanical damage (including hail damage)    
fungal diseases        
bacterial diseases            
pests            
intensive use of agrochemicals (increased plant protection and foliar fertilization programs)