Crop guides: Citrus tree

Crop Specificity: Citrus tree

Citrus fruit crops are one of the most commonly grown fruit crop in the World. The citrus group consists of several species with the greatest importance of: lemon (Citrus limon), orange (Citrus sinensis), mandarin (Citrus reticulata, C. deliciosa), grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi), lime (Citrus aurantiifolia), Seville orange (Citrus aurantium), pummelo (Citrus maxima), citron (Citrus medica) and kumquat (Fortunella margarita/ Citrus margarita).

All of the citrus crops are cultivated in subtropical or tropical regions with growing temperatures 24–270C and intolerance to frost.

Citrus plants are typically evergreen shrubs or small- to medium-sized trees. The most suitable soils for citrus growing are sandy loams with low level of ground water.

Therefore, plant nutrition takes a predominant role in successful citrus crop cultivation.

 

Citrus plants have high requirements for nitrogen (N) which effects plant growth and yield.  Efficiency of soil applied nitrogen could be improved by foliar application of N, especially at critical growth stages such as intensive shoot and leaf growth and beginning of fruit development. For both those stages PLONVIT NITROMAG and/or PLONVIT OPTY could support plants with proper dose of nitrogen and other macro- and microelements as well. 

 

High yield of citrus plants and high quality of fruit are resulted from balanced supplying plants with other macronutrients, especially potassium (K) and calcium (Ca). Foliar applied PLONVIT KAPLPRIM after fruit set could significantly improve supplying plants with K since application of PLONVIT CALCIUM TURBO  increases fruit firmness and resistance of fruit skin to cracking and creases. A good supply of citrus with calcium is also resulted from using of OPTYCAL – calcium activator, which simultaneously stimulates the uptake of calcium from the soil and directly increases the content of this ingredient in plants.

 

It is well known, that all citrus species require high level of supplying with microelements, especially boron (B), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu). Those nutrients have direct effect on a number of natural plant processes such as photosynthesis, pollination, fruit set and fruit development, sugar and acid metabolism etc. Their effectivness could be supported by application of: MIKROCHELAT Fe-13, MIKROCHELAT Mn-13, MIKROCHELAT Zn-15, MIKROCHELAT Cu-15. Also, since boron is hardly taken up by plants from soli, foliar application of PLONVIT BORON (or PLONVIT BORON TURBO or PLONVITBORON PLUS) could supply citrus plants with B to improve not only pollination and fruit set processes but also increase fruit quality.

 

Citrus crop plants grow intensively. Therefore, support of plant growth and increase tolerance to stresses could be very beneficial for yield quantity and quality. Foliar applications of TYTANIT and OPTYSIL may stimulate plants not only for better growth and yield but also for improvement of tolerance to abiotic (weather conditions) and biotic (disease and pest appearance) stresses.

Nutrition Program - diagram: Citrus tree

in progress 

Nutrition Program - description: Citrus tree

in progress 

Nutrient Deficiencies: Citrus tree

Nutrient deficiencies: Manganese (Mn)

Fertilizers that quickly provide Manganese (Mn):

Nutrient deficiencies: Magnesium deficiency (Mg) - Citru)

Fertilizers that quickly provide Magnesium deficiency (Mg) - Citru):

Stress Control System: Citrus tree

Strategy for Supporting Natural Plant Resistance STRESS CONTROL SYSTEM (SCS) is a set of recommendations for the use of stimulators, activators, shielding products and bio-products of INTERMAG, the aim of which is to increase the natural resistance of plants to stress, to support the health of plants, and to accelerate regeneration after the stress factors disappear.

Strategy STRESS CONTROL SYSTEM (SCS) - CITRUS can be implemented in two ways:

 

  1. Preventive actions – systematic biostimulating treatments, recommended in feeding and biostimulation programs – improve the condition of plants and increase their natural resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses.
     
  2. Intervention actions - individual selection of preparations and dates of their application, aimed at significant reduction of harmfulness of stresses and limitation of their negative effects that may occur in case of atypical or unfavorable growing condition appearance. These actions also accelerate the regeneration of plants after the stress factors disappear.

 

Elements of the strategy STRESS CONTROL SYSTEM (SCS) for CITRUS crops are:

• stimulators - TYTANIT, OPTYSIL, OPTYSIL ULTRAAMINOPRIM

• activators - GROWON, OPTYCAL

• protective products - CUPRAN, ALKALIN K+Si, ALKALIN KB+Si, ALKALIN PK 10:20

 

Selection of products to increase the natural resistance of plants to stress, to support health of plants and to accelerate their recovery after the stress factors disappear are shown in the table.

The effectiveness of the treatments with different products depends on the date of their application. In the table they are marked with symbols:

    before expected occurrence of stress factors

    during the stress

    after disappearance of stress factors.

 

Detailed information on each product applications can be found in their descriptions.

 

Factors causing plant stress - CITRUS

Yield

stimulant

TYTANIT

Immunity stimulants

OPTYSIL

Recovery

stimulant

AMINOPRIM

Activator of energy

GROWON

Calcium

activator

OPTYCAL

Protective products

ALKALIN

Shielding

product

CUPRAN
high soil salinity            
low temperature of soil and /or air        
high temperature of air and /or soil          

excessive soil moisture, periodic flooding

     
shortage of water in the soil          
limited availability of nutrients        
small number and low activity of pollinating insects            
adverse weather conditions during flowering            
mechanical damage (including hail damage)  
fungal diseases      
bacterial diseases          
pests          
intensive use of agrochemicals (increased plant protection and foliar fertilization programs)