Crop guides: Maize

Crop Specificity: Maize

Maize (Zea mays) is a warm climate crop, but thanks to the adaptation capabilities of that species, some varieties which enable growing of maize also in the temperate climate zone have been bred.

Due to the quantity and quality of produced biomass, it belongs to plants with high nutritional requirements.

 

Maize is characterized by specific dynamics of nutrient uptake. Optimal nitrogen fertilization and the creation of conditions for its efficient use by plants is the basis for good yielding.

Other macronutrients (phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulphur) directly or indirectly determine the dynamics of nitrogen uptake from the soil. Therefore, the good supplying plants with these nutrients is essential for the proper growth and maturation of maize kernels.   

 

Knowing requirements of maize and its sensitivity to deficiency of some nutrients – makes use foliar nutrition necessary. It effectively completes or corrects soil fertilization, as well as quickly mitigates the effects of inadequate nutrition of plants.

For example, in temperate climate conditions, low temperature of soil and air in the early stages of plant growth limits the uptake of nutrients from the soil, especially phosphorus (P), into the deficiency of which the maize is very sensitive.

Therefore, in the cultivation of this crop, foliar plant nutrition with the use of fertilizers such as PLONVIT FOSTAR or PLONVIT PHOSPHO is a standard. In the case when fastest supply of plants to phosphorus is needed, we recommend the GROWON energy activator.

 

Microelements, which are specific catalysts of biological transformations and physiological processes, are important for proper growth and development of maize. They also have a positive impact on the uptake and efficient use of macronutrients. Although the plants take microelements in small amount, their deficiency may cause significant yield losses and deterioration of their quality.

 

In the case of micronutrients, foliar nutrition is the basic and the most effective way of supplying plants with those nutrients.

 

Comprehensive supply of maize with microelements is provided by specialty foliar fertilizer – PLONVIT MAIZE.

 

Of all micronutrients, maize shows the greatest demand for zinc and boron. Therefore, foliar fertilizers (AMINOCHELAT Zn-24 or MIKROCHELAT Zn-15 or MIKROVIT CYNK) and boron fertilizers (MIKROVIT BORON TURBO or MIKROVIT BORON) are used in cultivation of maize.

 

Even short-term deficiency of nutrient may have a negative impact on plant growth and yield. Therefore it is necessary to conduct a  comprehensive analysis of the plants needs at every stage of their development. This will allow to properly feed and biostimulate them. Detailed tips in this regard are presented in the PLANNING TREATMENTS tab.

 

Plants grown in the field conditions are exposed to numerous stresses related to climatic, weather and environmental factors. In the STRESS CONTROL SYSTEM (SCS) tab, we indicate possibilities of increasing the natural resistance of plants to abiotic and biotic stresses, as well as the capability of accelerating the recovery of plants after the occurrence of stressful conditions. The stimulators: TYTANIT, OPTYSIL, AMINOPRIM play an important role in these activities.

 

All of these discussed actions significantly affect the yield increase and its quality parameters.

 

Nutrition Program - diagram: Maize

in progress

Nutrition Program - description: Maize

Period of treatment / Purpose of treatment Fertilisers
from the program
Features
and benefits
DEVELOPMENT OF LEAVES
BBCH 10–14
 
Stimulation of root system development
ROOTSTAR
0,8–1,2 l/ha
Stimulating the root system development in the early stages of plant development and increased tolerance to stress associated with low temperature and water deficiency.













DEVELOPMENT OF LEAVES
BBCH 12–16 
 
 Stimulation of root system development
 
Proper growth and development of plants
 
Increased plant resistance to adverse climate and soil conditions
 PLONVIT MAIZE
2 l/ha
+
GROWON
3 l/ha
 
 
or
 
PLONVIT PHOSPHO
2–4 kg/ha
+
GROWON
1 l/ha
Supply of micronutrients in ratios suitable for maize (plant health improvement, increased resistance to low temperatures, better use of macronutrients).
The addition of GROWON activator (fastest assimilating phosphorus) positively affects plant energy balance, root system development, acceleration of growth
and proper plant development.
Comprehensive supply of macro- and microelements, phosphorus in particular, enriched with GROWON activator (fastest assimilating phosphorus) - positive effect on plant energy balance, root system development, acceleration of growth
and proper plant development.
MIKROVIT BORON 
0,5–1 l/ha
Supply of boron in a easily absorbed form. Proper growth and development of plants. Formation of strong stem. Efficient transport
and accumulation of carbohydrates in the plant.
Positive impact on the development of generative organs.
 MIKROVIT ZINC
1–2 l/ha

may be used interchangeably with

MIKROCHELAT Zn-15
0,5–1 kg/ha
Source of zinc. Intensification of the photosynthesis process, participation in the synthesis of growth hormone (auxin), beneficial effect on the development of the root system.
 
TYTANIT
0,2–0,4 l/ha
Increased efficiency of photosynthesis. Intensification of nutrient uptake. Increased resistance to adverse cultivation conditions.
Positive impact on the development of generative organs.
 
MAGNESIUM SULPHATE
10 kg/ha
Source of magnesium and sulphur. Proper development of chlorophyll - faster biomass build-up. Better use of nitrogen. Improved transportation of assimilates. Positive impact on hormone and enzyme balance. Increased resistance to spring frosts.
 
 












DEVELOPMENT OF LEAVES  - BEGINNING OF STEM DEVELOPMENT (STEM ELONGATION)
BBCH 17–31 
 
Stimulation of plants to intensive  growth
 
Optimal use of nutrients and water
 
Proper development - good development of generative organs
 
Increased yield
PLONVIT MAIZE
2 l/ha
+
GROWON 
3 l/ha
 
or
 
PLONVIT OPTY
2–4 kg/ha
+
GROWON
1–2 l/ha
Supply of micronutrients in ratios suitable for maize (plant health improvement, increased resistance to low temperatures, better use of macronutrients).
The addition of GROWON activator (fastest assimilating phosphorus) positively affects plant energy balance, root system development, acceleration of growth
and proper plant development.
Supply of balanced amounts of NPK, as well as trace elements. Stimulation of rapid growth and development of plants - biomass gain. Regulation of energy transformation, hormone and water balance in plants.
The addition of GROWON activator (fastest assimilating phosphorus) positively affects plant energy balance, root system development, acceleration of growth
and proper plant development.
MIKROVIT BORON 
0,5–1 l/ha
Supply of boron in a easily absorbed form. Proper growth and development of plants
generative organs in particular. Efficient transport and accumulation of carbohydrates in the plant.
MIKROVIT ZINC
12 l/ha
 
may be used interchangeably with

MIKROCHELAT Zn-15
0, 5–1 kg/ha
Source of zinc. Proper growth and development of plants - participation in the synthesis of growth hormone (auxin). Beneficial effect on the intensification of the photosynthesis process, hence extended leaf lifespan, and as a result, increased weight of kernels.
Improved quality parameters of feed by increasing the content of zinc, easily absorbed by higher organisms.
 
TYTANIT
0,2–0,4 l/ha
Increased efficiency of photosynthesis. Intensification of nutrient uptake. Preparing the plant for intensive flowering. Increased resistance to adverse weather conditions. Stimulation of proper growth and development of plants.
 
MAGNESIUM SULPHATE
10 kg/ha
Source of magnesium and sulphur. Stimulation the development of chlorophyll. Efficient use of nitrogen from the soil. Increased resistance to low temperatures. Positive impact on hormone and enzyme balance. Improved quality of feed by increasing the content of assimilable magnesium and indispensable amino acids.























STEM ELONGATION
– BEGINNING OF TASSEL EMERGENCE
BBCH 31–51 
 
 Stimulation of biomass build-up
 
Proper development of generative organs (optimal length of cobs and number of set kernels)
 
Increased size and quality of yield
 PLONVIT MAIZE
2 l/ha
 
or
 
PLONVIT KALI
2–4 kg/ha
Supply of micronutrients in ratios suitable for maize nutritional needs (plant health improvement, increased resistance to low temperatures, better use of macronutrients).
Supply of macro- and microelements, potassium in particular. Enhanced development of plants. Improved water, hormone, and enzyme balance. Increased resistance to drought. Improved transport and accumulation of carbohydrates.
 
MIKROVIT BORON 
0,5–1 l/ha
Supply of boron in a easily absorbed form. Proper growth and development of plants,
generative organs in particular. Positive impact on pollination and fertilisation - effective kernel setting. Efficient transport and accumulation of carbohydrates in the plant.
 MIKROVIT ZINC
12 l/ha
 
may be used interchangeably with


MIKROCHELAT Zn-15
0, 5–1 kg/ha
Source of zinc. Beneficial effect on the intensification of the photosynthesis process, hence extended leaf lifespan, and as a result, increased weight of kernels.
Proper growth and development of plants - participation in the synthesis of hormones (auxin).
Improved quality parameters of feed by increasing the content of zinc, easily absorbed by higher organisms.

TYTANIT
0,2–0,4 l/ha
Increased efficiency of photosynthesis. Stimulation of intensive plant growth. Better use of nutrients. Strengthening the plants before flowering period - pollination, fertilisation and kernel setting, and further development of cobs. Increased resistance to adverse weather conditions and other stress factors.
MAGNESIUM SULPHATE
10 kg/ha
Source of magnesium and sulphur. Stimulation of the development of chlorophyll - hence an extended lifespan of leaves, and as a result, proper cob filling and increased kernel weight. Efficient use of nitrogen from the soil. Positive impact on hormone and enzyme balance. Improved quality of feed by increasing the content of assimilable magnesium and indispensable amino acids.
In case of insecticide treatments during panicle development, simultaneous foliar nutrition is recommended.
Professional equipment required!
 
TASSEL DEVELOPMENT
BBCH 51–55 
 
Enhanced yield potential
PLONVIT KALI
2–4 kg/ha
Comprehensive supply of macro- and microelements, especially potassium, which is particularly important in this period of maize development. Beneficial effect on water balance, and thereby increased resistance to drought. Increased efficiency of nitrogen uptake and transformation into yield. Proper development and filling of cobs.
TYTANIT
0,2–0,4 l/ha
Increased efficiency of photosynthesis. Better use of nutrients.
Stimulation of kernel setting and further development of the cob. Increased resistance to adverse weather conditions and other stress factors.

Nutrient Deficiencies: Maize

Nutrient deficiencies: Phosphorus (P)

Fertilizers that quickly provide Phosphorus (P):

GROWON

Activator of energy

PLONVIT FOSTAR

Liquid foliar phosphorus fertilizer with 500g P2O5 in 1L

PLONVIT PHOSPHO

Crystalline water-soluble NPK fertiliser with high concentration of nutrients, with majority of phosphorus.

PLONVIT UNI PK 10:18

Liquid phosphorus-potassium fertilizer with 140g P2O5 and 245 g K2O in 1L

Nutrient deficiencies: Potassium (K)

Fertilizers that quickly provide Potassium (K):

ALKALIN K+Si

Liquid, high-alkaline (pH ≥ 13.5), foliar potassium fertilizer with silicon

ALKALIN KB+Si

Liquid, high-alkaline (pH ≥ 13.5), foliar potassium-boron fertilizer with silicon

ALKALIN PK 10:20

Liquid, high-alkaline (pH ≥ 11.3), foliar phosphorus-potassium fertilizer

PLONVIT KALI

Crystalline water-soluble NPK fertiliser with high concentration of nutrients, with majority of potassium.

PLONVIT KALPRIM

Liquid potassium fertilizer with 400g K2O in 1L

PLONVIT UNI PK 10:18

Liquid phosphorus-potassium fertilizer with 140g P2O5 and 245 g K2O in 1L

Nutrient deficiencies: Calcium (Ca)

Fertilizers that quickly provide Calcium (Ca):

PLONVIT CALCIUM

Liquid calcium fertiliser with micronutrients containing 260 g CaO in 1 litre

Nutrient deficiencies: Magnesium (Mg)

Fertilizers that quickly provide Magnesium (Mg):

MIKROKOMPLEX

Crystalline magnesium and micro-element fertiliser

Nutrient deficiencies: Sulphur (S)

Fertilizers that quickly provide Sulphur (S):

MIKROKOMPLEX

Crystalline magnesium and micro-element fertiliser

PLONVIT BOROSULF

Crystalline, water-soluble foliar fertiliser with high concentration of boron and sulphur, with magnesium and microelements.

Nutrient deficiencies: Boron (B)

Fertilizers that quickly provide Boron (B):

MIKROVIT BORON

Liquid, foliar boron fertilizer containing 150 g of Boron in 1L

PLONVIT BOROSULF

Crystalline, water-soluble foliar fertiliser with high concentration of boron and sulphur, with magnesium and microelements.

Nutrient deficiencies: Copper (Cu)

Fertilizers that quickly provide Copper (Cu):

MIKROVIT COPPER

Liquid foliar copper fertiliser containing 80 g Cu in 1 litre

Nutrient deficiencies: Iron (Fe)

Fertilizers that quickly provide Iron (Fe):

MIKROCHELAT Fe-13

EDTA chelated iron (130 g Fe per kg) in the form of readily soluble in water ultra-granulate

MIKROVIT IRON

Liquid foliar iron fertiliser containing 75 g Fe in 1 litre

Nutrient deficiencies: Manganese (Mn)

Fertilizers that quickly provide Manganese (Mn):

MIKROCHELAT Mn-13

EDTA chelated manganese (130 g Mn per kg) in the form of readily soluble in water ultra-granulate

MIKROVIT MANGANESE

Liquid foliar manganese fertiliser containing 160 g Mn in 1 litre

Nutrient deficiencies: Zinc (Zn)

Fertilizers that quickly provide Zinc (Zn):

MIKROCHELAT Zn-15

EDTA chelated zinc (150 g Zn per kg) in the form of readily soluble in water ultra-granulate

MIKROVIT ZINC

Liquid foliar zinc fertiliser containing 112 g Zn in 1 litre

Nutrient deficiencies: Nitrogen (N)

Fertilizers that quickly provide Nitrogen (N):

PLONVIT NITRO

Crystalline, water-soluble NPK foliar fertiliser with high concentration of nutrients, with majority of nitrogen.

PLONVIT NITROMAG

Liquid foliar nitrogen fertilizer with addition of magnesium and micronutrients (containing 370g of N in 1L)

Stress Control System: Maize

Strategy for Supporting Natural Plant Resistance STRESS CONTROL SYSTEM (SCS) is a set of recommendations for the use of stimulators, activators, shielding products and bio-products of INTERMAG, the aim of which is to increase the natural resistance of plants to stress, to support health of plants, and to accelerate recovery after the stress factors disappear.

 

Strategy STRESS CONTROL SYSTEM (SCS) - MAIZE can be implemented in two ways:

 

  1. Preventive actions – systematic bio-stimulating treatments, recommended in plant nutrition and bio-stimulation programs – improve condition of plants and increase their natural resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses.
     
  2. Intervention actions – individual selection of preparations and dates of their application, aimed at significant reduction of harmfulness of stresses and limitation of their negative effects that may occur in case of atypical or unfavourable growing condition appearance. These actions also accelerate regeneration of plants after the stress factors disappear.

 

Elements of the strategy STRESS CONTROL SYSTEM (SCS) for MAIZE crops are:

 

Selection of products to increase the natural resistance of plants to stress, to support health of plants and to accelerate their recovery after the stress factors disappear are shown in the table.

The effectiveness of the treatments with different products depends on the date of their application. In the table they are marked with symbols:

    before expected occurrence of stress factors

    during the stress

    after disappearance of stress factors.

 

Detailed information on each product applications can be found in their descriptions.

 

Factors causing plant stress - MAIZE

Yield

stimulant

TYTANIT

Immunity stimulants

OPTYSIL

Recovery

stimulant

AMINOPRIM

Activator of plant rooting

ROOTSTAR

Activator of energy

GROWON

Calcium

activator

OPTYCAL

Protective products

ALKALIN

Bio-activator

BACTIM SOIL

high soil salinity  

           
late germination            
post-herbicidal stress            
low temperature of soil and /or air        
ground/spring frost          
high temperature of air and /or soil            

excessive soil moisture, periodic flooding

       
shortage of water in the soil          
limited availability of nutrients      
adverse weather conditions during flowering              
mechanical damage (including hail damage)    
fungal diseases        
pests          
intensive use of agrochemicals (increased plant protection and foliar fertilization programs)